Mining of fossil fuels and minerals - from Coal to Chromite, is a hazardous operation, particularly the opencast form of it, and is immensely damaging both to environment and people living around mines. Coal, from its mining to the end-usages, namely electricity generation and blasting of furnaces, produces highly toxic solid as well as gaseous pollutants containing heavy metals like Arsenic, Chromium, Lead, Mercury and so forth in dusts, solid wastes, and as particulate matters in the atmosphere. Yet the excavation of coal and its use continues in countries like India and China.
Adivasi (indigenous) and other neglected communities, who have been living in forests and hills for generations are displaced, often by force, to clear the grounds for mining.
In India, the government is negotiating with private mining companies to expedite the mining of coal ignoring the plea by local governments to wait until the Covid pandemic is controlled.